Flavio Azevedo
Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany


Project Overview

The Psychology of Political Behavior Studies (PPBS) are an ongoing series of quota-based national cross-sections, and its replication analogues, containing a set of repeating core questions on the topics of social and political attitudes, values, voting and candidate preferences, and political participation. PPBS leverages 12 datasets, collected through professional survey companies, for a combined N of 21.107 interviews. PPBS includes four nationally representative cross-sections of the American population (N=7.259) during the last three elections in the US (i.e., Presidential 2016 and 2020, and Midterms 2018), their replication/confirmatory analogues (N=11.582) in pre- and post-election studies, with added survey-specific repeated measures recontacts (N=2.215) across three time-points, allowing for both within and between research designs. Taken together, PBBS has surveyed more than 60 political and psychological constructs, many of which using its full instruments, allowing for the testing of competing explanations of the psychology of political behavior.

Below you find two visual representations, one of PPBS’s field periods broken-down by sample type, and another on the timeline of when each construct was surveyed. The motivation behind PPBS (i.e., the why, what, and how) is described here.

The methodology of all PPBS surveys can be found in the menu above. Collaborators, funders and investigators can be found here.

PPBS Surveys organized by sample type

  • Nationally Representative (N=7259)
  1. 2016 Pre-election sample (N=1500)
  2. 2018 Pre-election sample (N=1000)
  3. 2018 Post-election sample (N=2759)
  4. 2020 Pre-election sample (N=2000)
  • Confirmatory/Replication (N=11582)
  1. 2016 Pre-election sample (N=2119)
  2. 2016 Pre-election sample (N=420)
  3. 2018 Pre-election sample (N=2728)
  4. 2018 Post-election sample (N=3377)
  5. 2020 Pre-election sample (N=2938)
  • Recontacts or Longitudinal or Panel (N=2215)
  1. 2016 Pre-election sample (N=814)
  2. 2018 Pre-election sample (N=609)
  3. 2018 Post-election sample (N=792)

PPBS Surveys organized by date

  1. 2016 Pre-election Nationally Representative sample (N=1500)
  2. 2016 Pre-election Confirmatory/Replication sample (N=2119)
  3. 2016 Pre-election 2nd Study Convenience sample (N=420)
  4. 2016 Pre-election Recontacts/Longitudinal Convenience sample (N=814)
  5. 2018 Pre-election Nationally Representative sample (N=1000)
  6. 2018 Pre-election Confirmatory/Replication sample (N=2728)
  7. 2018 Post-election Nationally Representative sample (N=2759)
  8. 2018 Post-election Confirmatory/Replication sample (N=3377)
  9. 2018 Pre-election Recontacts/Longitudinal Convenience sample (N=609)
  10. 2018 Post-election Recontacts/Longitudinal Convenience sample (N=792)
  11. 2020 Pre-election Nationally Representative sample (N=2000)
  12. 2020 Pre-election Confirmatory/Replication sample (N=2938)


This website is very much a work in progress.

website designed and maintained by Flavio Azevedo.